Liaoning is the southernmost province in Manchuria, including the Liaodong Peninsula with Port Lüshunkou (Port Arthur) and Dalian (Far).

The territory is divided into three geographical regions. In the west - the hills and narrow plain "Corridor Lyaosi" - an important overland passage linking the north-east and north China. Middle - Liaohe Plain, formed by the sediment of the river and its tributaries Liao. Here fertile soil, abundance of water resources. Liaohe Plain is considered a strategically important area of ​​agriculture and growing base of commodity grain. In the east - hilly plains.

In the mountains, vegetation consists of deciduous and coniferous forests, plains - steppes and steppes. Forests cover a third of the province.

On the territory of the province found Isyanskaya formation - the formation of the Cretaceous period, which found countless dinosaur bones.

In II. BC. e. Liaoning won the territory of the present Chinese. Since I in. BC. e. and to XIII century. these lands were part of the Koguryo kingdom (I century BC -... VII c.), Bohai (VIII-X centuries.), Khitan Liao (X-XII centuries.) and the Jurchen Jin Dynasty (XII-XIII cc.) . In the XIII century. Liaoning took the Mongols. In the XIV century. Mongols were expelled from China, and the southern part of the territory of Liaoning became a part of the land of the Chinese Ming Empire. In the XVII century. these territories seized Manchuria and became the capital of Liaoning province's ruling Qing Dynasty (1644-1911 gg.). In Shenyang city even had its own imperial Forbidden City, both in the capital city of Beijing.

At the beginning of the XX century. Qing dynasty collapsed and Liaoning became the focus of interests of China, Russia and Japan. Even before that, in 1895, Japan seized the Liaodong Peninsula, but under pressure from Russia, France and Germany, he returned to China. In 1898, the peninsula was leased to Russia. During the Russian-Japanese War of 1904-1905. here have been many battles, including in the defense of Port Arthur, Russian forces in 1904. After the defeat in the war Russia was forced to cede the right to lease Liaodong Peninsula of Japan.

In 1931, Liaoning whole territory was occupied by Japanese troops. The reason for the attack served as the Manchurian Incident (Mukden incident, the incident Sept. 18) - undermining the railroad near Mukden (Shenyang so was called at the time). It was the beginning of the capture of Manchuria and the harbinger of the Second World War in the Far East. Japanese formed the puppet state of Manchukuo, which existed until 1945, when Liaoning was liberated by the Soviet Army. According to the Sino-Soviet Treaty of 1945 the area of ​​Port Arthur was transferred to China, the Soviet Union for 30 years as a naval base. But by the 1954 Soviet troops were finally withdrawn from the Liaodong Peninsula.

The very same Liaoning province was finally created in 1954, based on the Liaodong and Lyaosi provinces.

In 1970, Liaoning to the territory were annexed the territory of Inner Mongolia, but in 1979 it was given the status of the original.

Two-thirds of the province of Liaoning takes steppe plain Sunlyao. In the east - overgrown with deciduous and coniferous forests spurs Manchurian-Korean mountains. In the west - the eastern foothills of the mountains Lyaosi.
Liaoning Province - the most economically developed and rich throughout the northeast of China.

In China, Liaoning province dubbed "Golden Triangle" because of its economically important geographical position: it goes in the Yellow Sea (Bohai bays and Korean) in the south, there is the state border with North Korea, in the south-east was called "Lyaosi Corridor."

The number and variety of minerals, Liaoning has no equal in all of China. In reserves of iron, boron, magnesite, diamond, talcum, jade Liaoning leader in the country, oil production province in the third position, and reserves of black gold and natural gas account for respectively 15% and 10% of the total number in the country.

The leading place in the industry occupy the petrochemical and metallurgical industries, high technology and mechanical engineering.

Liaoning Province - the largest agricultural base of the country, specializing in horticulture, animal husbandry, vegetable and floriculture.

Liaoning - multinational province: there are representatives of 44 nationalities, but the vast majority - the Han. The proportion of ethnic minorities is about a fifth of the population.

Liaoning Province is considered to be unique to China: it mixed several different cultures. Despite the fact that the dominant culture is manchzhurtsev and Han, who live mainly in large cities, Liaoning culturally considered "malokitayskoy" territory.

The largest in area and population of the city - Shenyang, capital of the province, one of the five largest cities in China, an important transport hub of the country. The most ancient ruins of the settlements found here, about 7 thousand. Years. When the Qing Dynasty there was formed the area, which was named Shen. From 1625 to 1644 the city was the capital of Manchuria. The main attraction of the city and across the province - Mukden imperial palace, which was built from 1630 to 1643 the Palace was called "co-capital" since in 1644 the Qing Emperor Shunzhi moved the capital to Beijing. The palace is located in the city center, on the site of the former city walls, which now stretches modern avenues. At the Beijing Forbidden City Mukden Palace is included in UNESCO World Heritage List.

Not far from Shenyang is another attraction of the Qing era, located in the UNESCO World Heritage list: Yonglin mausoleum complex, consisting of three tombs, burial mounds belonging to the early Manchu rulers.

Another well-known city - Liaoyang, also referred to as one of the oldest cities with a permanent population in the northeast of China.

general information

Location: north-east China. Province in the PRC.

Administrative divisions: 12 urban districts (Anyian, Benxi, Chaoyang District, Tan Dun, Fushun, Fuxin, Huludao, Jinzhou, Liaoyang, Panjin, Tieling, Yingkou) and 2 sub-provincial city values ​​(Shenyang and Dalian).

Administrative center: city of Shenyang - 5,743,718 people. (2010).

Major cities: Dalian - 3.578 million people. (2009), Anshan - 1,529,850 people. (2010), Fushun - 1,340,205 people. (2010), Jinzhou - 886,008 people. (2010), Dandong - 780,414 people. (2010), Fuxin - 669,317 people. (2010), Benxi - 959,610 people. (2010), Liaoyang - 527,850 people. (2010).

Languages: Chinese, Mongolian, Korean.

Ethnic groups: Han (Chinese) - 83.94%, the Manchus - 12.88%, the Mongols - 1.60%, Hui - 0.63%, Koreans - 0.58%, Cibo - 0.32% Other - 0.05% (2000).

Religions: Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism.

Currency: Yuan.

The largest rivers: the Liaohe, the Yalu.

Major ports: Dalian (foreign, oil wharf), Yingkou, Dandong.

The most important airport: Shenyang Taoxian (international).


Area: 145 900 km2.

Population: 43,746,323 people.

Population density: 299.8 persons / km2.

Highest point: Mount Huabozi (1336 m).

Coastline: 2,178 km (12% of the total length of the coastline in China).

Climate and weather

North temperate monsoon continental character. Hot summer, cold winter.

Average January temperature: -11 ° C.

The average July temperature is + 24 ° C.

Average annual precipitation: 500 mm in the north to 1000 mm in the southeast.

Relative humidity: 70%.


GRP: $ 348 billion (2011), I will scent the population - $ 7954 (2011).

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, boron, magnesite, diamond, talcum, jade slate.

Industry: petrochemical, metallurgical, computer science, engineering, food, textile, pulp and paper.


Navigation on the river Liaohe and Yalu.

Agriculture: agriculture, horticulture, horticulture, floriculture.


Fish farming.

Extraction of salt from sea water.

Traditional crafts: the production of porcelain, bamboo.

Services: trade, financial, transport, and tourism.

interesting facts

■ City of Shenyang Imperial Palace Mukden, Bzylin park (or Zhaolin), the former residence of Zhang Xueliang.

■ Dalian: national tourist resort "Golden Beach stones", Xinghai Square, Woodland Park Zoo, amusement park "Hutan", Labour Park, People's Square, Haychzhiyun area, natural area "Banchuydao".

■ Architecture: Jasper Garden Buddha (Anshan).

■ Natural: Qianshan Range ( "Mountains of thousands of lotus"), Qian Mountain, hot springs Tangandzy.

■ District Lüshunkou (formerly Port Arthur): Russian 15th Electric battery cliff, the fort number 2 - the place of death of General RI Kondratenko, height 203 - Memorial Museum and Russian positions on a mountain high, Memorial Russian military cemetery with a chapel ( 15 thousand. soldiers, sailors and officers of the port Arthur garrison and fleet), railway station (1901-1903.), Russian battery on Mount Vantaa (Eagle's nest).

interesting facts

■ The total length of railways in the province - more than 5000 km. On the railway network density Liaoning ranked first in the country.

■ In Isyanskoy formations were found the remains, in particular, psittacosaurs. This name comes from the Greek words "psittakos" - "parrot" and "zauros" - "Raptor", which reflects the resemblance front of the animal's head with the beak of a parrot. Also in Liaoning Province it was found the famous feathered dinosaur called Sinosauropteryx, or "Chinese dragon wing".

■ Currently, the former Port Arthur called lushunkou and is a district of the city of sub-provincial city subordination value Dalian, Liaoning Province. In September 2010, in the presence of holding the position of President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev opened the restored memorial Russian and Soviet soldiers in Port Arthur.

■ On the territory of the province of Liaoning takes 392 rivers. In the area of ​​water areas set aside for fishing, Liaoning ranks second in the country.

■ The world's largest Buddha from Jasper (Jasper Emperor) is in the Garden of Jasper Buddha, in the suburb of Anshan. Its height is 7.95 m, width 6.88 m, thickness 4.1 m. In 1995, he was carved out of stone weighing 261 tons. The stone was discovered in 1960, but then was unable to get him to handle that was made only in 1992, the most the world's largest jade stone weighing more than 60 000 tons was discovered in Xiuyan county, Liaoning province.